As the introduction of automated vehicles becomes feasible, even in urban areas, it is necessary to investigate their impacts on traffic safety and efficiency. This is particularly true during the early stages of market introduction, where automated vehicles of all SAE levels, connected vehicles (able to communicate via V2X), and conventional vehicles share the same roads with varying penetration rates. There will be areas and situations on the roads where high automation can be granted, and others where it is not allowed or not possible due to missing sensor inputs, high complexity situations.
At these areas many automated vehicles will change their level of automation. We refer to these areas as “Transition Areas”. The EU project TransAID develops and demonstrates traffic management procedures and protocols to enable smooth coexistence of automated, connected, and conventional vehicles, especially at Transition Areas. A hierarchical approach is followed where control actions are implemented at different layers including centralised traffic management, infrastructure, and vehicles.